Monday, January 20, 2020

Human Movement: Swimming Essay -- Anatomy, Biomechanical Parameters

The research of human movement is quite complex, because human origins are not so determinists as other (bio)mechanical systems; assessing human beings in aquatic environment becomes even more as this is not their natural environment and other physical principles have to be considered. This makes competitive swimming as one of the most challenging sports to perform scientific research (Barbosa et al. 2011). In fact, the challenge of the current study was to assess the physiological and biomechanical behavior of competitive swimmers, in order to close the gap between theory and practice. To assess the chosen physiological and biomechanical parameters, the intermittent incremental protocol was the prime tool used in this study; the protocol was adapted from the 7x200 m front crawl protocol validated by Cardoso et al. (2003) and, applied to competitive swimmers by Fernandes et al. (2003). Initially, this protocol has been used to assess the maximal volume of oxygen consumption (VO2max) and corresponding swimming velocities (Fernandes et al., 2003), being considered to be reached according to primary and secondary traditional physiological criteria (cf. Adams,1998; Howley et al., 1995), particularly the occurrence of a plateau in oxygen uptake despite an increase in swimming velocity and high levels of blood lactic acid concentrations ([La-]≠¥8 mmol/l), elevated respiratory exchange ratio (R≠¥ 1.0), elevated heart rate (>90% of [220-age]) and exhaustive perceived exertion. However, the main objective was not to assess VO2max but to use the 7x200m intermittent incremental protocol to assess AnT. In fact, AnT assessment is one of the most used parameters determined by the 7x200m protocol (P... ...may reflect the skill and technique of the swimmers to adopt a better streamlined position (cf. Zamparo et al., 2009); therefore, high values of TI leads to a higher hydrodynamic resistance and vice-versa. It was observed that TI maintained constant throughout the 7x200m protocol, which are not in accordance with Zamparo et al. (2009). For the authors, with the increasing of v, TI tends to decrease. Under fatigue the swimmer may pay less attention to body alignment, which induces a less streamlined position (Craig et al., 1985). In this context, the 7x200m intermittent incremental protocol should be considered a precise tool to assess individual biomechanical and physiological parameters and their interaction should be taken in account. Although, future research may centers in the connection of those parameters and understand the behavior before and after AnT.

Sunday, January 12, 2020


To promote, and thereby support inclusive decision making as a collaborative and empowering process, which is fully attentive to the individual's perspective and to the views of the primary career. To enable and support the positive management Of risks where this is fully endorsed by the multi-disciplinary team as having positive outcomes. C] To promote and enhance safer working environments. C] To provide a shared theoretically sound basis for multi-agency training and or the monitoring and auditing of service responses.C] To promote the adoption by all staff of ‘defensible decisions' rather than ‘defensive decisions'. 1. 3 Review of this Guide: The Guide will be reviewed annually. The next review will take place in September 2011. Page 4 Of 38 2. Introduction 2. 1 The saying â€Å"nothing ventured, nothing gained† makes the point that unless someone takes a risk and tries new activities, they will never know of the positive benefits that might result. In our soci ety, people are encouraged to travel widely, take part in regular leisure and sporting activities, go to college, evolve careers and have families.These are all activities that don't just happen, but mean people have to take risks to achieve their aspirations. 2. 2 For many people taking risks is an accepted part of life. However people with a disability and older people are often discouraged from taking risks, either because of their perceived limitations or fear that they or others might be harmed. 2. 3 Changes in society's attitude towards disability, social care and health policy now mean that people with a disability and older people are being actively encouraged to increase their independence in their daily activities and sections about the services they receive.The focus is now more on enhancing people's abilities rather than concentrating on their disabilities. 2. 4 â€Å"Historically, social care has been good at providing services that minimized risk. However, personaliza tion means that in the future Social Care (and Health Services) have to work towards providing choices rather than services. † 1 2. 5 This Guide is concerned with setting out the approach that the Isle of Wight Council and PACT expect its staff to adopt towards the issue of risk when they work with adults with a disability and older people. 6 When implementing this Guide in day-to-day practice, the Isle of Wight Council and PACT recognize that any risk-taking approach must be balanced with their responsibilities in relation to safeguarding adults and children, care standards and health and safety legislation. 2. 7 In addition, whilst this Guide Will encourage the Council's leisure, sport and cultural services to work with social care services and their users around the issue of risk, it should not lead them to feel they have to individually risk assess every person who use their services outside of their duty of care awards all consumers.We recognize that to do so WOUld be bot h impractical and potentially discriminatory. However there may be circumstances in which some services provided may need to assess the risk to an individual. They will explain their justification for Safeguarding Adults: A consultation on the review of the â€Å"no secrets guidance†: DOD / Dignity and Safety / Lucy Abandoner – 14 October 2008 Page 5 of 38 this and do everything practical to enable the individual's inclusion in the activities in which they want to take part. 2. The Council and Pact's Services will also endeavourer through their impassioning arrangements and Service Level Agreements to encourage the individuals, agencies and set-vices it funds, or with which it contracts, to manage risks positively. 2. 9 The Guide will support the Council and PACT to fulfill their responsibilities under the Disability Discrimination Acts 1995 and 2005 and the Mental capacity Act 2005. The Mental capacity Act 2005 and its code of practice provides a statutory framework f or people who lack capacity to make decisions for themselves.The Guide supports the Human Rights Act 1998 as it empowers people make decisions for themselves where possible and places individuals at the heart of the decision making process. 2. 10 The Local Authority and PACT owe a duty of care to all their service users. Any risk taking has potential legal implications in negligence. However, these can be minimized where there is a positive approach which generates a clear trail of written records showing the issues and solutions which have been considered, and there is an explicit and justifiable rationale for risk management decisions. 2. 1 The fundamental principle of this Guide is that support is provided to individuals to enable them to receive personalized care / support that meets heir needs regardless of their disability, age, gender, ethnicity, religion or sexuality. This also applies to people with a particular medical or psychiatric diagnosis. This support must exist with in a framework of risk assessment and management that is collaborative, transparent and enabling. Page 6 of 38 3. What is risk? 3. 1 Risk is the possibility that an event will occur with harmful outcomes for a particular person or others with whom they come into contact. . 2 A risk event can have harmful outcomes because of: L] risks associated with impairment or disability such as falls C health notations or mental health problems C] accidents, for example, whilst out in the community or at a social care / us port service risks associated with everyday activities that might be increased by a person's impairment or disability C] the use of medication C] the misuse of drugs or alcohol C] behaviors resulting in injury, neglect, abuse, and exploitation by self or others C] self harm, neglect or thoughts of suicide.L] aggression and violence CLC poor planning or service management 3. 3 The type of outcome depends on the nature of the person, their relationships tit others and the circum stances in which they find themselves. 3. 4 Risk is often thought of in terms of danger, loss, threat, damage or injury. But as well as potentially negative characteristics, risk-taking can have positive benefits for individuals and their communities. 3. 5 Risk can be minimized by the support of others, who can be staff, family, friends, etc.However, in promoting independence, individual responsibility for taking risks must be a balance between safeguarding someone from harm and enabling them to lead a more independent life where they effectively manage risks themselves. . 6 A balance therefore has to be achieved between the desire of people to do everyday activities with the duty of care owed by services and employers to their staff and to users of services, and the legal duties of statutory and community services and independent providers.As well as considering the dangers associated with risk, the potential benefits of risk-taking have to be identified (nothing ventured, nothing gained'). This should involve everyone affected – adults who use services, their families and practitioners. Page 7 of 38 4. What is ‘managing risk positively? 4. 1 Managing risk positively' is: weighing up the potential benefits and harms of exercising one choice of action over another, identifying the potential risks involved, and developing plans and actions that reflect the positive potential and stated priorities of the service user.It involves using available resources and support to achieve the desired outcomes, and minimizing the potential harmful outcomes. It is not negligent ignorance of the potential risks†¦ It is usually a very carefully thought out strategy for managing a specific situation or set of circumstances. † (Steve Morgan, 2004)2 . For community based services, this means: C] empowering people C] working in partnership with adults who use services or direct their own support, family career and advocates 0 developing an understanding of t he responsibilities of each party 0 helping people to access opportunities and take worthwhile chances CLC developing trusting working relationships 0 helping adults who use services to learn from their experiences 0 understanding the consequences of different actions 0 making decisions based on all the choices available and accurate information L] being positive about potential risksC] understanding a person's strengths C] knowing what has worked or not in the past L] where problems have arisen, understanding why C] ensuring support and advocacy is available to all users of services, particularly if things begin to go wrong for someone sometimes tolerating supported short-term risks in consultation with the service user, for long-term gains 2 Morgan, S. (2004). Positive risk-taking: an idea whose time has come.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Main Ideas In Everyday Use Novel - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1717 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2019/06/10 Category Literature Essay Level High school Tags: Everyday Use Essay Did you like this example? Everyday Use; Story Analysis Legacy is a fundamental principle to human life. The spigot enables individuals to interface and relate. For people to proceed to relate and advance legacy needs to develop too. Everyday Use by Alice Walker is the tale of two sisters, one taught voyager and one basic shut-in. Through a basic clash, so much is uncovered about how the two sisters live their lives and what is of incentive to them. This story, albeit short, conveys a major message about a legacy in a developing world. Legacy taking care of business cant be stopping or only something of the past, yet rather it should always change and create as time unfurls. The story is described by their mom, relates a cumbersome gathering of two sisters, Maggie and Dee. Maggie has dependably been a less difficult young lady who wanted to remain at home with their mom, Mama, in Augusta, Georgia. Be that as it may, Dee was sent to class, ventured to the far corners of the planet, and picked upped progress. Dees landing is premeditated by a quality of uneasiness as neither Maggie nor Mama comprehend what weird traditions Dee may have gotten. As the time gravitates toward a vehicle methodologies and Dee rises with an outside beau. Maggie is cumbersome and chilly to the new visitor, and Mama is tired. Dee reports that she has changed her name to Wangero Leewanika Kemanjo because she wouldnt like to be named after the general popul ation who persecuted the African Americans, so she gave herself a conventional African name to respect her underlying foundations (for contentions purpose she will in any case be alluded to as Dee). Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Main Ideas In Everyday Use Novel" essay for you Create order Deers arrival is met with considerably more uneasiness as she treats Maggie like a dolt. She at that point requests that Mama bring home family relics that are as yet used by the ladies in their everyday lives, for example, an old spread agitate. As Dee keeps on guaranteeing rights to these old household things, feeling that she can appropriately welcome them, she runs over some family effects that lead the story to its contention about the significance and present-day estimation of legacy. Dee experiences Mamas trunk and rises with quilts woven with the ancestral garments including their Grandma Dees dresses and their extraordinary granddads common war uniform. Dee says that she will remove the blankets from their hands with the goal that she can gladly hang and show them at her home. This does not go over well as these blankets were at that point guaranteed to Maggie. Dee rebukes this by expressing that Maggie will use them as though they are only a typical, unsentimental thing and will destroy such valuable treasures. The story closes with Dee putting down both Mama and Maggie saying they dont comprehend their own legacy and that Maggie needs to isolate herself from the family ranch and make a big deal about her life as she drives off (Walker 1531-1537). Everyday Use raises numerous focuses that can be connected to society. The story contains numerous exercises to be learned in a legacy, custom, and roots. Dee has a restricting supposition to Mama and Maggie. Dee considers legacy to be something that will be shown and respected however ought to be left before. Her mom and Maggie see no mischief in proceeding to live the manner in which their predecessors dependably have. They imagine that by doing this current ones legacy is being regarded and legitimately kept up. With the end goal to genuinely acknowledge a legacy, it is vital that it is proceeded as a lifestyle, nonetheless, this does not imply that it cant change, and individuals must be solidified before. It is certain that Dee has proceeded onward from the straightforward lifestyle of her mom and sister, and in doing as such she has distanced herself from her family and in addition her underlying foundations. She, be that as it may, doesnt appear to see as despite everything sh e needs to show still-useful antiques of her skin around her very own house. This is confirming in the piece of the story where Dee sees the margarine beat not for a stir, but rather for a protest of improvement: I can use the churn top as a centerpiece for the alcove table, she said, sliding a plate over the churn, ?and Ill think of something artistic to do with the dasher. (Walker 1535) As if this wasnt enough of a denounced of her practical heritage, she again proves this point during the quilt tantrum between her and her mother. It is obvious that Dee has detached herself from her past, and she has embraced a more global outlook on life. However, this is not necessarily a bad thing as people need to be continually evolving to survive. Joe Sarinowski points out the merit behind Deers side and compliments her on her innovation of thought (270). Even though Deers opposing view to her sister and mother make her seem like she doesnt understand where they are coming from, and why their way of life is so valuable to them, she values her heritage and embodies a new modern view. She promotes a new way for African Americans. The other extraordinary of legacy safeguarding found in the story is Maggie and Mamas view, that the predictable usage and routine in regard to ones legacy as it generally has been willing keep it in politeness the best. In spite of the fact that the characters are living in the twentieth Century, Maggie and Mama appear to be stuck in the Civil War period. Dee calls attention to the blunder of their routes toward the finish of the story when she discloses to her sister, You ought to try to make something of yourself, too, Maggie. Itrs really a new day for us. But from the way you and Mama still live youd never know it. (Walker, 1536) This sort of social protection is excessively outrageous and doesnt take into account individuals to improve past the point they are trapped. In any case, similarly as Dees outrageous perspective of legacy had some legitimacy, so does Maggie and Mamas. They are genuinely using their past further bolstering their advantage. The opposite side of the blanket occurrence, indeed, calls attention to the advantages behind their view with Mamas pleasure in Maggies planned use of the blankets when Mama says I reckon she would, I said. ?God knows I been saving ?me for long enough with nobody using ?me. I hope she will! (Walker 1536). Inside these contradicting thoughts of legacy one can endeavor to choose which is correct, yet the appropriate response is more mind boggling. It effortlessly can be said that parts of the two convictions consolidated make reality of legacy. Culture can best be safeguarded by a mix of the limits we see in Everyday Use. With the end goal to protect legacy taking care of business Dees component of modernization needs to meet Maggies component of usage. Dees conviction of social legacy is fixated on acclimating to a cutting edge world and Maggies conviction is focused on safeguarding the manner in which she lives and not modifying anything. The center ground, where culture can be acknowledged for what occurred and proceeded as a lifestyle yet adjusted to fit a changing, present day world. An author who additionally contends this conviction is Federico Lenzerini: regarding the way that culture is a living and variable element, one given social sign can speak to a culture through the prog ression of time just if such appearance is able to do constantly changing itself in parallel to the changes describing the social entire of which it is a section (102). An essential part to the continuation of mankind is versatility. On the off chance that culture cant adjust, neither can individuals. An essential image in the story that further accentuates this point is the butter churn. Dee sees the butter churn as an old relic that could be utilized as a craftsmanship piece. Though Mama still observes the butter churn for its utilization for making butter, making note of the hand denotes that have been engraved in the handle following quite a while of usage. Durham composes, Symbolic products also possess a certain concreteness. But if they are not used, the work that brought them into being is in a sense dead (Durham 75), to clarify that the utilization of social items is basic to the continuation of legacy. In the event that the butter churn is an image, it isnt only a relic that symbolizes a past people; it is a protest that is as yet utilized by Mama and by utilizing the butter churn they are, as it were, safeguarding a bit of their way of li fe. Everyday Use is the tale of two sisters that have become separated physically, emotionally, and mentally. Dee has ventured to the far corners of the planet and has proceeded onward from the manner in which she was raised while Maggie remained home and proceeded with the correct lifestyle that she was brought up in., in particular so because her mom has never moved far from the conventional existence of her precursors. The two different ways of life found in this story both epitomize the boundaries in which one can grasp their legacy. Individuals dont need to experience each day in and out rehashing conventions of the past to keep up their underlying foundations, however there is something else entirely to living inside ones legacy than acknowledging relics of the past. Legacy must be something beyond an important enrichment, for that embellishment would simply be an image of the individuals who encountered their legacy amid life. Dees side of aggregate globalization that leaves legacy in the past to modernize and grow must meet Maggie and Mamas side of legacy utility and redundancy. Works Cited Durham, Eunice Ribeiro. Reflections on Culture, Heritage and Preservation. Vibrant: Virtual Brazilian Anthropology, vol. 10, 28 Apr. 2015, pp. 75-77. eLibrary. Lenzerini, Federico. Intangible Cultural Heritage: The Living Culture of Peoples. European Journal of International Law, Apr. 2015, pp. 101-20. eLibrary. Sarnowski, Joe. Destroying to Save: Idealism and Pragmatism in Alice Walkerrs Everyday Use.' Papers on Language Literature, vol. 48, Aug. 2012, pp. 269-86. eLibrary. Walker, Alice. Everyday Use. The Norton Anthology American Literature, vol. 2, 2013, pp. 1531-37.

Friday, December 27, 2019

Racial Profiling And The Criminal Justice System - 1204 Words

Abstract Racial profiling is a major issue in American society. Its existence threatens every minority citizen of this country. Racial profiling is not fair and not effective because it relies on stereotypes and encourages discrimination. Examining cases that have occurred in the past and most recently help us fully understand this issue. Many studies and reports of racial profiling involve excessive use of force, police brutality, imposition of death penalty, traffic stops, stop and frisk issues, airport screening and immigration. All these issues are fully expressed in this paper. This paper offers facts and statistics as evidence of the existence of racial profiling in the criminal justice system. In the United States, citizens are struggling to trust the criminal justice system because racial profiling has taken over its roots. According to the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), racial profiling is when someone with authority targets a particular person or group for suspicion of an offense not because of their behavior but because of their race, ethnicity, religion, and national origin (â€Å"Racial profiling,† 2005). Criminal justice officials are the primary perpetrators of racial profiling because they possess power and the discretion to do what they want, even if it is against the law. It is unethical to racially profile people and it also violates the requirement of equal protection of born or naturalized citizens of this country. Racial profiling is anShow MoreRelatedRacial Profiling And The Criminal Justice System1582 Words   |  7 PagesRacial disparity in the Criminal Justice system has been a issue of discussion in our law enforcement for years. Statist ics say the likelihood of imprisonment in a lifetime is 1 in 3 black men, 1 in 6 Latino men and 1 in 17 white men. (Bonczar2003) The search and seizure 4th amendment was passed in 1789 which was supposed to protect all persons of unreasonable searches, etc. In 1944 Gunner Myrdal wrote â€Å"it’s part of a policeman’s philosophy that Negro criminals or suspects that show any sign of insubordinationRead MoreRacial Profiling And The Criminal Justice System1004 Words   |  5 Pagesbe on minorities. As we take a closer look into that statistic on crime, housing, employment along with racial profiling I do believe most are tied together which can easily cause a revolving door within the criminal justice system. When we look at the minority communities there are many challenges they are faced on a daily basis. Addiction and Crime: Incarceration: Employment: Racial Profiling: The use of race or ethnicity as grounds for suspecting someone for crimes. Mental Health: Many individualsRead MoreAnalysis of Racial Profiling in the Criminal Justice System3223 Words   |  13 PagesAnalysis of Racial Profiling In the Criminal Justice System Police officers today face many challenges. Some concerns include dangers or safety concerns related to being a police officer, questions of the use of force and the public’s perception of officers being corrupt. Additionally, with cases of deaths and accusations that have come to the forefront about police throughout the United Stated, questions about police racial profiling have also come to light. Today’s police are considered toRead MoreRacial Profiling in Canada1166 Words   |  5 PagesRacial profiling is the act of selecting targets for criminal investigation not on behavioural merit, but exclusively on markers of personal identity such as race, ethnicity, and religious orientation (Perry, 2011, p.9). 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Racial profiling is the use of race or ethnicity as grounds for believing an individual is suspicious of committing a crime. Discriminatory or abusive behavior towards people of color affects the justice system and violates people’s human rights. The LAPD continues to u se racial profiling against mostly African-Americans and Latinos. The use of racial profiling by the LAPD prevents the police from serving the whole communityRead MorePolicy Process Essay1222 Words   |  5 PagesSociety relies on the criminal justice system to maintain order within communities and to maintain a safe environment for community members. Society expects the criminal justice system to provide justice by separating the guilty from the innocent, to incapacitate dangerous individuals, to promote deterrence to law-breaking individuals, and to rehabilitate offenders. An important expectation of the criminal justice system is to provide fair and just consequences to criminal offenders and assist theRead MoreRacism : The Criminal Justice System1040 Words   |  5 PagesRacism in Our Criminal Justice System There are many different types of unlawful racism in the criminal justice system. It goes from back in the early part of our great nation’s birth to the killing of Martin Luther King Jr. to Ferguson, Missouri. The path that racism takes is from old time’s point of view. The way to clear up racism in our criminal justice system is simple and easy. Americans need to fully understand the idea of equality. Second, police need to stop doing racial profiling. Finally,Read MoreRacism Is Not As Cruel Essay1679 Words   |  7 Pagesdifferent racial groups face several challenges in their everyday life, like the difference in income, education, health, and criminal justice. This essay will outline the main problems of racism that still occur in the community of African-Americans, particularly focusing on racial profiling, shooting of unarmed black citizens and different criminal justice that has been unfairly justified. Racial profiling is the practice of law enforcement officers targeting individuals for suspicion of criminal activityRead MoreRacial Profiling Is A Necessary Evil1100 Words   |  5 PagesRacial Profiling In order to understand racial profiling, it must first be correctly defined. Although different authors use different criteria for the term racial profiling, the definition for the word racial is â€Å"of, relating to, or based on a race The definition the dictionary puts forth for profiling is â€Å"the act of suspecting or targeting a person solely on the basis of observed characteristics or behavior.† Based on these definitions, racial profiling could be defined for criminal justice purposes

Thursday, December 19, 2019

The Moral Implications of The Pardoners Tale and The...

During the Middle Ages, England was a nation in social chaos. Deception of every kind was rampart throughout the lands. Many people felt that there was a great need for moral improvement in society. In Geoffrey Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales he clearly brings to light his thoughts and concerns of â€Å"ethical cleansing.† No tale more fully expresses this idea than that of â€Å"The Pardoner’s Tale† and â€Å"The Nun’s Priest’s Tale.† â€Å"The Pardoner’s Tale† suggests a profile of the Pardoner as a moral man, a man of God. The narrator is viewed as a wise, gentle, and truthful man who wants to share his story in a respectful tone. His story reveals his message, which is that greed leads to destruction and the corruption of all things good. The Pardoner†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬Å"That trick’s been worth a hundred marks a year/ Since I became a Pardoner, never fear†¦And tell a hundred lying mockeries more†(242). The epilogue of â€Å"The Pardoner’s Tale† provides a final view of the teller, who is not concerned with truth or morality. Is there any good at all in the Pardoner? Even though the Pardoner provides his services because of his greed, he knows intuitively that all those around him require spiritual and moral guidance. He is able to turn the villagers he dupes away from their greedy ways by telling them a story of death and destruction. â€Å"The Nun’s Priest’s Tale† primarily revolves around Chanticleer’s dream. However, the importance of the story was not in the dream but rather in his actual encounter with the fox. Chanticleer notices the fox while watching a butterfly, and the fox confronts him with dissimulating courtesy, telling the rooster not to be afraid. â€Å"Sir! Wither so fast away? / Are you afraid of me, that I am your friend?† (227). As a way to trap Chanticleer the fox praises him on his magnificent voice. â€Å"Truly I came to do no other thing/ Than just to lie and listen to you sing. / You have as merry a voice as God has given/ To any angel in the courts of Heaven† (227). Chanticleer relishes the foxs flattery of his singing. He beats his wings with pride, stands on his toes, stretches his neck, closes his eyes, and crows loudly. The fox reaches out

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Graffiti Art essay example Example For Students

Graffiti Art essay example Graffiti art is an art form. The reasons, including aesthetic criteria, as to why it is an art form far outweigh the criticism of illegality, incoherence, and nonstandard presentation. The objective of this paper is to explain how graffiti art overcomes these concerns and thereby can be considered as an art form. Suppose that Leonardo, Monet, Picasso, or any of the recognized artisans of Western European culture were alive in the present day. Then, suppose that one of these famous artists decided to paint a masterpiece on the side of your house or on your front door or on a wall in your neighborhood. Would Picasso or Monets markings be graffiti art or vandalism or graffiti art? The answer may vary across people, but I would claim that those markings are art in the form of graffiti. Their markings would qualify as vandalism only if they appeared on private or public property without permission. The same answer holds for the present day, genre of graffiti known as graffiti art. Graffiti art originated in the late 1960s, and it has been developing ever since. However, it is not readily accepted as being art like those works that are found in a gallery or a museum. It is not strictly denied the status of genuine art because of a lack of form or other base aesthetic elements. Most of the opposition to graffiti art is due to its location and bold, unexpected, and unconventional presentation, but its presentation and often illegal location does not necessarily disqualify it as art. In this paper, I elucidate how some forms of graffiti can be accepted as art. This type of graffiti is known as graffiti art, subway art, or spraycan art. The arguments of vandalism and unconventional presentation as negating the ability of some graffiti to be art is usurped by an explanation of those properties apparent in some forms of graffiti that do qualify it, aesthetically, as art. To show this, I provide a historical context of graffiti, and then I provide persuasive evidence that graffiti art is art. The origins of graffiti go back to the beginnings of human, societal living. Graffiti has been found on uncovered, ancient, Egyptian monuments, and graffiti even was preserved on walls in Pompeii. Graffiti is the plural form of the Italian word grafficar. In plural, grafficar signifies drawings, markings, patterns, scribbles, or messages that are painted, written, or carved on a wall or surface. Grafficar also signifies to scratch in reference to different wall writings ranging from cave paintings, bathroom scribbles, or any message that is scratched on walls. In reference to present day graffiti, the definition is qualified by adding that graffiti is also any unsolicited marking on a private or public property that is usually considered to be vandalism. There are various forms of graffiti. One of the simplest forms is that of individual markings such as slogans, slurs, or political statements. Examples of this type of graffiti commonly are found in bathrooms or on exterior surfaces, and this graffiti is usually handwritten. Another simple form is that of the tag which is a fancy, scribble-like writing of ones name or nick-name. That is, tag signifies ones name or nick-name. Both the tag or individual mark have little or no aesthetic appeal. While they might suggest a flair or style of writing, these forms fail to qualify as example of superb graffiti art because of a lack of aesthetic qualities and inability to produce a maximal aesthetic feeling in the viewer. In fact, the tag or individual mark is not produced for artistic purposes. It is basically a means to indicate the writers presence, i. e. , the age old statement of I was here. Gang markings of territory also fit the definition of graffiti, and they mainly consists of tags and messages that provide news of happenings in the neighborhood. Murals for community enhancement and beautification are also a form of graffiti even though they are not usually thought of this way because most murals are commissioned. These are more colorful and complex. They take considerable amount of skill to complete, and murals can be done in a graffiti art style or a traditional pictorial scene. The last form of graffiti is graffiti art which is the creative use of spraypaint to produce an artwork that is graffiti or done in a graffiti-like style, and this the is the concern of this discussion. Modern graffiti art originated in New York City, and it was known first as New York Style graffiti. This art form began in the late 1960s when teens used permanent markers to tag or write their names, followed by the number of the street on which they lived, in subway cars. This trend originated with the appearance of Taki 183 which was the tag of a Greek American boy named Demitrius. Tagging soon became a way to get ones name known throughout the city. However, it should be noted that tagging appeared in Philadelphia before New York. The monikers, Cornbread and Top Cat were well known in Philadelphia, and when Top Cats style appeared in New York, it was dubbed as Broadway Style for its long skinny lettering. The advent of the spraypaint allowed for the tag to develop in size and color. For it was not enough just to have ones name scrawled over any available and visible surface because everyone was doing this. The spraycan separated the taggers from the artists in that color, form, and style could be emphasized creatively with this new tool to produce s tag as a part of an overall artistic production. The tag which is monochromatic and a writing style that just about anyone can do, gave way to the throw-up, which is a two color tag usually in outline or bubble-like lettering. Again this style is not too difficult, but soon more complicated styles evolved. The stamp is a little harder and involves the use straight letters to produce a 3-D effect. The piece, which is short for masterpiece, appeared next, and it is a large multicolor work. A production is a piece that is usually on the scale of a mural, and it involves original or familiar cartoon characters in addition to the writer or graffiti artists name. It should be noted that every graffiti form listed involves the artists name, whether as the central feature or as an ornament within the piece because writers want to be known. Atomic Bomb EssayIn addition, graffiti art is not a spontaneous activity like tagging in the form of fancy scribble. The completion of a piece or a production involves a great deal of imagination, planning, and effort. The graffitist first does a sketch. Then he or she plans out characters and selects colors. Next, the artist selects his or her canvas or surface and does a preliminary outline, followed by a filling in of colors and ornamentation, and then the final outline is completed. Graffiti can also be analyzed according to the elements of lines, color, and structures that are present in the work in order to produce a narrative about it. Another significant reason why graffiti art can be viewed as art is by considering the producers intention. Graffitists intend their work to be apprehended as art that can communicate feelings and ideas to the audience. This is in line with Tolstoys mandate that art must allow people to express ideas and share in each others feelings via the artwork. Plus, graffiti art has a function of not only communicating to others, but it also beautifies the community by appearing on areas that normally would be eyesores, such as a wall in a vacant lot or an abandoned building. Furthermore, all of the aesthetic properties and criteria from the base element of color to the complex issue of artist intention which are ascribed to other works in order to characterize them as art can all be found in examples of spraycan art. The only difference between those works in a gallery or museum and graffiti art in terms of how and why the latter is not readily accepted as art is due to its location and presentation. Indeed the issues of location and presentation are the most significant obstacles to a wholehearted acceptance of spraycan art as art. Graffiti art cannot be disregarded simply because it is not presented in the conventional location and manner, i. e. , framed and placed in a museum or gallery. The location of it on a wall or subway without permission only makes it unsolicited art. As such, it can be called vandalism, but again, this does not disqualify it as art. Rather the categorization of graffiti art as unsolicited art that is vandalism only justifies a removal of it from the surface. On the other hand, the vandalism aspect of graffiti art can be considered as a uniqueness and not a detracting feature of the art form because as vandalism, graffiti art is very temporary. A piece which might be sixty feet long, twelve feet high, and take twenty to thirty cans of paint and at least eight hours to produce might be gone in a matter of minutes. Another challenge to graffiti art is that it is forced upon the public because people have no say in its production despite the fact that public funds are used to remove it. Graffitists counter with the argument that buildings, billboards, campaign ads, and flyers are also forced on the public in a similar manner. Spraycan art suffers other criticisms because of the generic characterization of all graffiti as being gang related and simply a matter of tagging. However, only 20% of graffiti is gang related [ed. note: according to Walsh, who mentions this number in _Graffito_. Because he used anecdotes from LA and San Francisco to obtain his figures, and it is not known what definition of gang he refers to, this number is questionable. , and it should be noted that not all instances of graffiti art are good examples of the art form; just like not all framed artistic creations are good examples of painting or even worthy of being called art. Graffiti is also criticized for being too hard to understand, but certainly this cannot keep graffiti art from being art anymore than the obscurity of abstract art or Picassos cubism prevents either one of those hard to understand art forms from being considered as art. Goldmans aesthetic theory is of use to clarify the problem of location and presentation in relation to graffiti art. Goldman claims that art takes us to other worlds in a manner that is quite fulfilling sensually and aesthetically. This removal from the real world is enhanced by the mood of the gallery or the dark setting of the opera house. Most of the time when we encounter art and are transported by it to other worlds, we are in a location in which we expect this to happen. However, this is not the case with graffiti art. For it appears suddenly and in unexpected places. Thus, when we apprehend it, we are transported to these other worlds at a time and in a place that we are not accustomed to doing so. We are not used to art approaching us outside of conventional settings such as a museum. Instead of the audience going to view the art form, spraycan art reaches out to the viewer; sometimes in a startling manner. One can only imagine how shocking and surprising it might have been to see a colorful train moving swiftly through the dingy stations and drab boroughs of New York City. Spraycan art is an art form that is completely open to the public because it is not hemmed in by the confines or laws of the gallery system or the museum. Perhaps, this is its only crime. The institutional theory, in brief, mandates that art is that which is displayed by the art world to be accepted as art as determined by the members of the art world. Since graffiti art is not permanently established in any galleries or museums, often it is argued that it is not art, but even this criticism falls short because there are instances where the art world has recognized graffiti art as art. In the 1970s, galleries in New York and Europe brought graffiti to the attention of the art world.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Mary Talbot’s Language and Gender Essay Sample free essay sample

What’s the first thing that is said about a newborn kid?It’s healthy It’s human It’s female — It’s male Do parents please in a newborn miss every bit much as in a newborn male child? 1 1/24/13What does â€Å"it’s a girl/boy† say about the kid?How do parents respond to an intersexed kid – a kid that exhibits both male and female features? What colour covers are give to pamper misss? What colour covers are given to pamper male childs? Has it ever been this manner? Do animate beings hold gender?We use gendered pronouns even with animate beings where it’s non noticeable and we could state â€Å"it. † We put pink threads in miss dog’s hair and disguise on boy Canis familiariss. [ For most people in most civilizations †¦ ] Gender is an built-in portion of personhood. It is difficult to wrap one’s encephalon around the thought of a gender-neutral. We will write a custom essay sample on Mary Talbot’s Language and Gender Essay Sample or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page gender-indeterminate individual. or even a gender-neutral pet. Even when speaking about divinity. most would instead pray to God as Father ( or Mother ) . non as Great Spirit or Holy Spirit. Mentioning to God as â€Å"It† feels impersonal. For intents of this talk and this category. make non confound masculine and feminine with sexual penchant or orientation. Both homophiles and straight persons. and those who do non suit in this duality. may move or speak in ways that members of a civilization may comprehend as more masculine or feminine. Grammatical GenderThere is besides what is know as â€Å"grammatical gender. †Spoken Mandarin has really small — â€Å"da† is he. she. ( or it? ) . Written Mandarin has three pronouns for he. she. and God.[ Note that Nipponese and Korean are linguistically really different from Chinese. even though they borrow words and composing methods. ] English has he and she.And certain gender based words: waitress. actress. etc.A few Gallic adoptions still exist: groom-to-be and fiance’ . blond and blonde A few Latin footings retain their gender: alumnus/alumni and alumna/alumnae. Most European linguistic communications have more genderProto-European linguistic communications had gender.In many linguistic communications. all nouns are either male or femaleThingss which are male in onelanguage may be female in another. Sometimes the gender can be instead unlogical.Most of the clip the grammatical gender does non impact the significance. feeling. or use of a word. Or does it?Nipponese has more gendered pronouns. including several signifiers of â€Å"I† as shown on page 5. â€Å"Watashi† and â€Å"Watakushi† – F/M â€Å"Atashi† – F â€Å"Boku† – M â€Å"Ore† – macho adult male Change go oning – Girls utilizing â€Å"Boku† Feminists utilizing â€Å"Boke† Note that in English. a adult female would seek to sound more masculine by take downing the pitch of her voice and utilizing stronger glottals. while in Nipponese. she uses different pronouns. Other civilizations have even more alteration. In one Caribbean civilization. work forces and adult females speak basically different linguistic communications. In Karaja’n society ( Brazil ) work forces and adult females pronounce words otherwise â€Å"bisileta† ( M ) vs. â€Å"bisikreta† ( F ) – â€Å"Bicycle This difference even happens in borrowed words. Women usage /k/ and /ku/ Arabic is the antonym.Womans avoid utilizing the rough croaky sounds in favour of the softer consonants. They may alter idiom to make it.Sex-exclusive distinction: –Women and work forces ever do it otherwise. –It’s â€Å"hard-wired† into the linguistic communication. –There’s a clear cut or binary difference.Sex-preferential distinction:–One gender tends to prefer one thing. while another prefer something else. –Or they do more of something – more nasal. airy. etc — more adjectives. In American civilization. who is more likely to utilize stronger voicing – more quiver of the vocal chords? Who is more likely to state â€Å"That is a lovely coral jumper you are wearing† ? Or â€Å"That jumper is merely divine† Or to a client: â€Å"Here you go honey† Think about the footings Mr. Mrs. and Miss.If we were utilizing these traditional footings. you would already cognize whether Carlee or Metro were married. but non whether I was married. Hence. the linguistic communication would coerce you to pay attending to a women’s matrimonial position. but non to a man’s. See how this affects concern and societal relationships. hypertext transfer protocol: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=zv8yEMRDe_w What makes Paula Deen seem more feminine? What does Dustin Hoffman do linguistically to play a adult female? hypertext transfer protocol: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=uOUWQBDbtso Summary:It is far more than pitch that distinguishes more masculine and more feminine linguistic communication.Cardinal differences?Is it helpful to look for differences between adult females and work forces? Talbot says no. Some research workers seek to minimise any differences. or to demo that the differences are non familial. Others research workers are biased to look for differences. frequently as a manner of warranting patriarchate. subjugation. pigeonholing. etc. I say. expression at the differences. so expression to see if they are on a continuum. so expression for the cause. so ask whether the difference is of import. so ask whether either difference is good. so be tolerant of both sides. so use the signifier that works the best for you in the state of affairs. There may be a ground why we have had three really effectual female Secretaries of State in the last three disposals. Possibly there is something in their â€Å"feminine language† that makes them good negotiants. Challenge: believe about your ain linguistic communication manner. Talk to your friends and schoolmates about it.How masculine and/or feminine are you in your linguistic communication usage/presentation? Do you like where you are? Are at that place features that you would wish to alter? Are the alterations practical? Would alter in linguistic communication use change the necessity you? For better or worse?